Main Article Content


This study investigated the rhetorical pattern (RP) of the introduction section of the scripts written by Acehnese undergraduate students studying in four different universities in Aceh. The focus of this study is on three elements: placement of the thesis, patterns of idea, and metadiscourse markers of the introduction section. Literature has reported a number of findings regarding the RP; however, information about this in undergraduate level, particularly in state universities in Aceh, is still limited. This study was conducted qualitatively by employing content analysis to identify the RP. A number of introduction sections of students’ scripts from four selected universities in Aceh were collected and analysed. The result shows the dominance of the three elements in the introduction section.


writing style introduction section Acehnese undergraduate students.

Article Details

Author Biography

Iskandar Abdul Samad, Syiah Kuala University

Iskandar Abdul Samad is an alumni of University of New England (UNE), Australia. He completed his PhD degree at this university in 2015. His research interest is in language teaching methods and approaches, including the use of genre approach for teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and communicative language teaching generally. Before completing his PhD at UNE, he had completed his Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics at Macquarie University, Australia in 2007. He has taught English as a Foreign Language for more than 13 years at Syiah Kuala University, Aceh, Indonesia. He established a private foundation, Rumoh Bahasa, where he also teaches EFL. Iskandar is an avid reader and writer. He has attended and presented papers at national and international conferences and written books on teaching English for novice students.  

How to Cite
Rizkanisa, N., Samad, I. A., & Usman, B. (2017). EFL Students’ Writing Style in the Script Introduction Section. Journal of ELT Research: The Academic Journal of Studies in English Language Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 139-150.


  1. Arsyad, S. (2000). The Indonesian and English Argument Structure: A Cross – Cultural Rhetoric of Argumentative Text. Australian Review of Applied Linguistic, 22(2), 85-102.
  2. Bennui, P. (2008). A Study of L1 Interference in the Writing of Thai EFL Students. Journal of ELT Research , 4, 72-91.
  3. Cahyono, B. Y. (2001). Research Studies in Second Language Writing and in Contrastive Rhetoric. Journal Jurusan Sastra Inggris Universitas Kristen Petra, 3(1), 39-52.
  4. Cameron, C. (2007, March 30). Bridging the Gap: Working Productively with ESL Authors. Science Editor, 30(2), 43-44.
  5. Crawford, T., Pablo, I. M., Goodwin, D., & Lengelin, M. (2013). From contrastive rhetoric towards perceptions of identity: Written academic English in Central Mexico. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 15(1), 9- 24.
  6. Estaji, M., & Vafaeimehr, R. (2015). A Comparativa Analysis of Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in the Introduction and Conclusion Sections of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Research Papers. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3(1), 37-56.
  7. Genc, B., & Bada, E. (2005). Culture in Language Learning and Teaching. The Reading Matrix, 1, 80.
  8. Ghanbari, B. (2014). Cross-cultural rhetoric awareness and writing strategies of EFL learners: Implications for writing pedagogy. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning , 3(5), 53-70.
  9. Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. (1996). Theory and Practice of Writing. Harlow, England: Longman.
  10. Hamadouche, M. (2013). Intercultural Studies in the Arab World from a Contrastive Rhetoric Perspective. Arab World English Journal, 181- 188.
  11. Helal, F. (2013). Discourse and Intercultural Acedemic Rhetoric. Journal of Modern Linguistic , 3(2), 149-156.
  12. Hyland, K. (2012). Second Language Writing. (J. C. Richard, Ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Incecay, V. (2015). Contrasting Rhetorical Patterns: Discovering Effects of First and Second Language Writing Convention. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 61, 137-154.
  14. Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. Language Learning, 16(1‐2), 1-20.
  15. Kroll, B. (2011). Exploring the Dynamic of Second Language Writing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  16. Li, M.-Y. (2011). A Contrastive Rhetoric Analysis of Internship Cover Letters Written by Taiwanense and Canadian Hospitality Majors. Macrothink Institute: International Journal of Linguistic, 3(1), 1-14.
  17. Liu, J. J. (2007). Placement of the Thesis Statement in ENglish and Chinese Argumentative Essays: A Study of Contrastive Rhetoric. Electronic Journal of Foriegn Language Teaching, 4(1), 122-139.
  18. Magginson, D. (2007). The University of Ottawa. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from Writing Centre:
  19. Mirshami, A., & Allami, H. (2013). Metadiscourse Markers in the Discussion/Conclusion Section of Persian and English Master's Theses. The Journal of Teaching Language Skill, 5(3), 23- 40.
  20. Newfields, T. (2003). Helping EFL Students Acquire Academic Writing Skill. Journal of Nanzan Junior College, 30, 99-120.
  21. Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle, Cengage Learning.
  22. Rustipa, K. (2010). Ideas Development Patterns of English Expository Discourses by Indonesians as Reflected in Jakarta Post.
  23. Dinamika Bahasa dan Ilmu Budaya, 7, 55-70.
  24. Samad, I.A & Adnan, Z. (2017). Using a Genre-Based Approach to Prepare Undergraduate Students for an English Thesis Defence Examination: An Experimental Study to Address the 'Pedagogical Controversy'. Linguistik Indonesia, 35(1), 75-93.
  25. Samad, I. A., & Adnan, Z. (2016). Generic Structure of an Important, but Neglected, Academic Genre, Thesis Event Examination, and Its Pedagogic Implications. Proceeding of TESOL Indonesia International Conference Edition, University of Mataram, 11-13 August. Lombok: ELE Publishing.
  26. Samad, I. A., & Fitriani, S. S. (2016). Genre Element of Script Defence Examination (SDE) of State Islamic Universities in Indonesia. Proceeding of IEEC-Capeu, Syiah Kuala University, 13-15 November. Banda Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press.
  27. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. (2001). Academic Writing for Graduate Students: A Course for Nonnative Speakers of English. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  28. Xing, M., Wang, J., & Spencer, K. (2008). Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric in English Writing Via An E- Learning Course. Language Teaching and Technology, 12(2), 71-93.
  29. Yang, L., & Cahill, D. (2008). The Rhetorical Organization of Chinese and American Students' Expository Essays: A Contrastive Rhetoric Study. International Journal of English Studies, 8(2), 113-132.