Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis and Second Language Learning

  • Ali Akbar Khansir Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr
  • Farhad Pakdel Department of English, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


This article aims to provide an overview of some of the issues related to contrastive analysis hypothesis in second language learning. Contrastive hypothesis is one of the branches of applied linguistics which concerns with the study of two systems of languages between first language and target language. Contrastive hypothesis has fairly played an important role in language studies. Thus, in recent years, contrastive analysis has been used in language teaching contexts, syllabus design, and language classrooms by language teachers over the world. Many research works have been done by many language researchers in different aspects of contrastive hypothesis and also error analysis in the world. Language teachers always see contrastive analysis as a pedagogical imperative in target language and they use it as a functional approach in language classroom. However, contrastive hypothesis follows the errors of language learners in second language education.


Bhatia, A. (1975). Error analysis and its implication for teaching. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 65-84.

Birjandi, P., Mosallanejad, P., & Bagheridoust, E. (2006). Principles of teaching foreign language. Tehran: Rahrovan publications.

Chomsky, N. (1959). A Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language, 35(1), 26-58.

Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Corder, S.P. (1976). The significance of learner's Errors. 1RAL, 5(1-4), 161-170.

Crystal, D. (1992). An encyclopedic dictionary of language and languages. USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Dulay, H. C., and Burt, M. K. (1974). You can’t learn without goofing. An analysis of children's second language errors. In Richards (Eds). Errors analysis: perspective on second language acquisition. London: Longman Group, Ltd, pp.95-123.

Duskova, L. (1969). On sources of errors in foreign language learning. IRAL, 7(1), 11-36.

Ellis, R. (1991). Instructed second language acquisition. UK: BLACKWELL.

Ellis, R. (2003). Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. New York: Routledge.

Fries, C. C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Fries, C. C. (1945). Teaching and learning of English as a foreign language. Ann Avbor: University of Michigan Press.

Gass, S. M, & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition. New York: Routledge.

Ghadessy, M. (1980). Implication of error analysis for second/foreign language acquisition. IRAL, 18(2), 93-101.

James , C. (1980). Contrastive analysis. Singapore: Longman Group Ltd.

Johnson, K. & Johnson, H. (1999). Encyclopedic dictionary of applied linguistics. UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Kaur, S. (1993). Language transfer and overgeneralization hypothesis: An evidence from Punjab. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 65-84.

Khansir, A. A. (2010). A comparative linguistic study of errors. Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing.

Khansir, A. A. (2012). Error analysis and second language acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(5), 1027-1032.

Khansir, A. A. (2013). Applied linguistics and English language teaching. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 15(8), 1140-1146.

Khansir, A.A. (2014). The place of hypotheses of Krashen in Language teaching. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 7(2), 136-142.

Khansir, A. A., & Pakdel, F. (2016). Place of linguistics in English language teaching. Arab World English Journal, 7(3), 373-384.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across culture: Applied linguistics for teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Lee, W, R. (1968). Thoughts of contrastive linguistics in the context of foreign language teaching. In J. Alatis (1968). Contrastive Linguistics and its pedagogical Indications. Washington: D.C. George Town University.

McLaughlin, B. (1985). Second language acquisition in childhood. volume 2: School-Age Children. Hillsdale, N :Lawrence Erlbaum.

McNeill, D. (1966). Developmental psycholinguistics. In F. Smith & G. Miller (Eds), The genesis of language: A Psycholinguistics approach (pp-69-73). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Marton, W. (1981). Contrastive analysis in the classroom. In Fisiak J. (Eds). Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon.

Mishra, K. C. (2005). Correction of errors in English: A training course for the teachers of English as second language. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.

Nunan, D. (2001). Second language teaching & learning. USA: HEINLE& HEI NLE Publisher.

Oller, J. & Ziahosseiny, S. (1970). The contrastive analysis hypothesis and spelling errors. Language Learning, 20 (2), 183-189.

Pathak, R. S. (1988). Error analysis of an Indian corpus. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(2), 59-72.

Prator, C. (1967). Hierarchy of difficulty. Unpublished classroom lecture. University of California Los Angeles.

Richards, J. C, Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992). Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Essex: Longman.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. IRAL, 10(3), 209-231.

Skinner, B.F. (1957).Verbal behaviour. New York: Appleton.

Stockwell, R., Bowen, J., & Martin, J. (1965). The grammatical structures of English and Spanish. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Wardhaugh, R. (1970). The contrastive analysis hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 4(2) 120-130.

Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching. London: Arnold.
How to Cite
KHANSIR, Ali Akbar; PAKDEL, Farhad. Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis and Second Language Learning. Journal of ELT Research, [S.l.], p. 35-43, feb. 2019. ISSN 2527-7448. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 may 2019. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.