L2 Writing Strategies Used by EFL Graduate Students

  • Syaadiah Arifin

Abstract

This study investigates the writing strategies and the predominantly strategies used by four Indonesian graduate students when writing in L2 (English). They were divided into 2 groups, skilled and less skilled writers, to examine what strategies they applied when writing. The main instrument of this study is Think Aloud Protocols (TAPs). The analysis of data collected discovered some findings: (1) both skilled and less skilled writers used varied strategies. However, the frequency of using each strategy was different. Skilled writers used each strategy in high frequency. On the other hand, less skilled writers only used each strategy in low frequency, while skilled writers understand the recursive nature of writing. (2) Skilled writers used reading and rereading strategies in high frequency for several purposes: revising and editing the text, developing ideas, and getting new ideas, while less skilled writers rarely used those strategies. They wrote whatever ideas came into their mind, and reread the text once in a while. These findings suggest that effective writing strategies should be introduced explicitly when student writers have already mastered the foundation of writing. Unfortunately, they are seldom guided on the use of writing strategies in the process of their writing. In fact, effective writing strategies and the frequency of using each strategy could help them become good writers and influence the quality of their writing. Based on these findings some suggestions are discussed. 

References

Abdullah, M. R. T. L., Abu Bakar, Z., Ali, R. M., Yaacob, R. A. I. R., Abdur-Rahman, M. A., Embong, A. M., & bin Amar, A. Z. (2011). Writing strategies of Malaysian ESL undergraduate engineering learners. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 11(2), 1-9.
Alharthi, K. (2011). The impact of writing strategies on the written product of EFL Saudi male Students at King Abdul -Azis University. Unpublished PhD Thesis,University of Newcastle.
Alwasilah, A. C. (1998). Intellectuals lack writing skills. The Jakarta Post, Jan 3.
Bailey, S. (2003). Academic writing: A Practical guide for students. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Arndt, V. (1987). Six writers in search of text: a protocol-based study of L1 and L2 writing. ELT Journal, 41(4), 257-267.
Beare, S. (2000). Differences in content generating and planning process of adult L1 and L2 proficient writers. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario.
Berman, R. (1994). Learners' transfer or writing skills between languages. TESL Canada journal, 39 (1), 81-141.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Blanchard, K., & Root, C. (2004).Ready to write more: from paragraph to essay. (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Cumming, A. (1989). Writing expertise and second-language proficiency. Language learning, 39, 81-41.
El-Aswad, A. (2002). A study of the L1 and L2 writing processes and strategies of Arab learners with special references to third-year Libyan University students. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Newcastle.
Emig, J. (1977). The Composing processes of twelfth graders. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English .
Ericcson, K. A., & Simon, H. (1984). Protocol analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Faigley, L. (1986). Competing theories of process : a Critique and a proposal. College English, 41, 19-38.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1980). The Dynamic of composing: Making plans and juggling constrain. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steiberg (Eds.), Cognitive Processes in Writing. Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Pub.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32 (4), 365-387.
Harmer, J. (2007). How to teach for exams (3rd Ed.). Pearson Education Limited.
Hsiao, T., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A conformity factor analysis. The modern Langauge Journal, 86 (iii), 368-383.
Kieft, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Berg, H. D. (2006). Writing as a learning tool: testing the role of students' writing strategies. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XX (1), 17-34.
Krapels, A. (1990). An overview of second language writing process research. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language Writing: Research insights for the classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krashen, S. 1992. Fundamental of language education. Torrence, CA: Laredo Publishing Co., Inc.
Latif, M. (2008). The problem identified in the previous coding schemes used for analysing L2/Fl writers' think-aloud protocols. Language at the university of Essex (Lang UE) 2008 proceedings (2009), 1-19 .
Macaro, E. (2009). Developments in language learner strategies. In C. Vivian, & L. Wei (Eds.), Contemporary applied linguistics: Language teaching and learning (Volume 1) (pp. 10-36). London: Continuum.
Martin-Betancourt, M. (1986). The composing processes of Puerto Rican college students of English as a second language. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Fordham.
Matsumoto, K. (1995). Research paper writing strategies of professional Japanese EFL writers. TESL Canada journal, 13 (1), 17-27.
Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case Study research in Education : A Qualitative Approach. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks of communicative classroom. C.U.P.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies (3rd Ed). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Pennington, M. C., & So, S. (1993). Comparing writing process and product across two languages: A study of 6 Singaporean student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 317-36.
Perl, S. (1979). The composing process of unskilled college writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 13(4), 317-338.
Perl, S. (1981). Coding the Composing Process: A Guide for teachers and Researchers. Manuscript Written for the National Council of Education, Washington DC.
Pianko, S. (1979). A description of the composing process of college freshmen writers. Research in the teaching of English, 13 (1), 5-22.
Riazi, A. (1997). Acquiring disciplinary literacy: A social-cognitive analysis of text production and learning among Iranian graduate students of education. Journal of Second language writing, 6 (2), 105-137
Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Language teaching and applied linguistics. Pearson Education Limited.
Richards, J. C. (1990). From meaning into words: Writing in a second or foreign language. The language teaching Matrix. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shapira., A., & Lazarowitz, R. H. (2005). Opening windows on Arab and Jewish children's strategies as writers. Language Culture and Curriculum, 18 (1), 72-80.
Silva, T. (1993). Towards and understanding of the distinct nature of L2 writing: The ESL research and its implication. TESOL Quarterly, 27 (4), 657-677.
Silva, T., & Matsuda, P. K. (2001). On second language writing. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sommers, N. (1980). Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers. College Composition and Communication, 31 (4), 378-88.
Torrance, M., Thomas, G., & Robinson, E. (1994). The writing strategies of graduate research students in the social science. Higher Education, 27, 379-392.
Victori, M. (1995). EFL writing knowledge and strategies: an interactive study. Unpublished PhD dissertation dissertation, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain), Barcelona.
Wang, J. (2004). An investigation of the writing processes of Chinese EFL learners: Sub processesof Chinese learners: Sub processes, strategies and the role of the mother tongue . Unpublished PhD thesis, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Wang, W., & Wen, Q. (2002). L1 use in L2 composing process: An explotary study of 16 Chinese EFL writers. Journal of Second language Writing, 11, 225-246.
Weijen, D. V., Huub van den Bergh, H. V., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Sanders, T. (2009). L1 use during L2 writing: An empirical study of a complex phenomenon . A journal of second language writing, 18, 235-50.
Wenden, A. (1987). Conceptual background and utility. In Wenden, A.,& Rubin, J. Learners Strategies in Language Learning, 3-14.
Wong, A. T. (2005). Writer's mental representation of intended audience and the rhetorical purpose for writing and that strategies that they employed when they composed. System, 33 (91), 29-47.
Published
2017-07-18
How to Cite
ARIFIN, Syaadiah. L2 Writing Strategies Used by EFL Graduate Students. Journal of ELT Research, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 115-129, july 2017. ISSN 2527-7448. Available at: <http://journal.uhamka.ac.id/index.php/jer/article/view/424>. Date accessed: 17 nov. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.22236/JER_Vol2Issue2pp115-129.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.