International Journal of Primary Education (INJOPE ) is an international, open access, multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal that is online publishes two times in a year. INJOPE publishes peer-reviewed articles that pertain to both education theory and research and their implications for teaching and learning in the elementary and middle grades. In addition, INJOPE presents articles that relate the latest research in teacher education and development, child development, educational psychology, educational policy, sociology and philosophy to school teaching and learning, educational technology, and curriculum development.